Diary of Samuel Pepys — Volume 51: March 1666-67
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The Stor As someone who plans on going into college ministry, this book helps signifigantly. These is a must An odd title for a rather interesting book, set in Australia's Gold Coast. The book starts with Andr This is not a standalone and does not end with a HEA, though one is in the works. Committee appointed by the Parliament to enquire into the late dreadful firing of the city of London London, Indeed, the news of suppression may have heightened interest in this text.
One openly partisan account conveys some sense of just how much longevity the fire had as a focus for religio-political conflict, and how this conflict always recurs to the partisan nature of evidence and its interpreta- tion. The author asserts a difference between a lying legend and an authentic history but also claims that this distinction is made by the allegiance of the speaker: Catholics lie; Protestants tell the truth. Yet such texts, which advertise both their Protestant bias and, therefore, their truthfulness also acknowledge that their own narratives are partial and interested.
To make the past politically useful, Protestant writers had to remember selectively. As Ernest Renan and others have argued, forgetting is as important a part of nation-formation as remembering. For many of these writers, the past — recent or remote — is a field on which one can mobilize old conflicts and conspiracies as proof of what one already knows, that is, who can be trusted and who cannot. The monument In , a monument commissioned by Parliament, designed by Christo- pher Wren and Robert Hooke, and begun in , finally raised its head feet to commemorate the fire.
The monument, which still stands today, consists of a huge Doric column topped by a vase of flames, a cheaper sub- stitution for a fifteen-foot statue of Charles II that had originally been planned. An allegorical bas-relief of Charles II coming to the aid of a female London, designed by Caius Gabriel Cibber father of Colley decorates the west side of the pedestal. The east side lists those who were lord mayor in the years during which the monument was begun, under construction, and at last completed. Neither inscription blames a human agent for setting the fire. The Latin inscriptions simultaneously confer grandeur and permanence on the history they describe and withhold that history from wide circulation by limiting those who can decipher and thereby learn from it.
Thomas Gale, the head of St. There are small disparities among the transcriptions of this inscription, but it seems to have said roughly this: This Pillar was set up in perpetual remembrance of the most dreadful burning of this Protestant City, begun and carried on by the treachery and malice of the Popish faction in the beginning of September, in the year of our Lord , in order to the carrying on their horrid plot for extirpating the Protestant religion and old English Liberty, and introducing Popery and Slavery.
This sentence bears no relation to the Latin passage it concludes, which simply describes the devastation wrought by the fire. Presenting it in Latin grants it a certain credibility, and blurs the differ- ence between the sentiments and goals of and of While Latin remained the language of learning, diplomacy, law, and architectural sen- tentiae, it was also increasingly associated with Catholic liturgy— and its elitism — and occult practices, which led worshippers to follow liturgical form without necessarily understanding its content.
Thus presenting this terse and menacing indictment of Catholic guilt in Latin has an ironic smack. In , at the accession of James II, these two inscriptions were effaced. After the Revolution of at least the English one, and perhaps the Latin one, were restored to the monument— in very deep characters, as many explain. The inscriptions were not finally gouged out until after the [Catholic] Emancipation Act of and the election of the first Catholic MP.
This was sometimes literally the case; for instance, a pope-burning was held before the monument on Guy Fawkes day in In that process, the monument was taken by many Protestants not as an assertion, but as a proof. The inscription on the monument so robustly pronounced the truth of Catholic conspiracy that, in itself, it became a kind of proof, not of belief or of desire, but of what had actually happened.
Who had most power at a given moment? Especially when assertion constitutes proof, engraving a statement in stone grants it no greater permanence than the regime that funds the memorial. The monu- ment became one site of struggle not just between Catholics and Protes- tants, but between Whigs and Tories, the city of London and the court. In , Ward was indicted for perjury and sentenced to the pillory, result- ing from a conflict between the duke of York and several city aldermen regarding their libellous claim that the duke had set the city on fire.
While the inscriptions were still in place, guidebooks to London tended to present them as a blot on an otherwise impressive column, an embarrassing reminder of a less-enlightened past. These were concocted by prejudice, penned with spleen, and stand the bigotted evidence of party spirit, neither justified by liberality, nor founded in fact. After the inscriptions were effaced, many guidebooks simply ignored them. The Baedeker guides, for instance, do not refer to them.
Those words, and that interpreta- tion of events, are thus in no way gone; they have simply been moved to the side and glossed. The monument itself now claims to commemorate an event without cause or perpetrator; off to the side of the missing inscrip- tion, seemingly less official but every bit as durable, is the reminder of a his- tory of blame, a history inseparable from the history of the fire. There is a groove around the pedastal where the English inscription was removed but these missing words are not supplied.
However, one can also find the stone from the house in Pudding Lane, and a reproduction of the English inscrip- tion on the monument, at the Museum of London. Thus, it is, in my view, quite appropriate that evidence of this history of contested memory should be preserved. My only concern is that, for many visitors, this commemoration may operate, instead, as a reenactment.
The removed yet memorialized inscription still hints that this is the real story, marginalized only by squea- mishness about boldly stating blame.
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Since the interpretation blaming Catholics is put into words, while alternatives are not, the version written in stone is still granted a weight and durability that alternatives cannot match. The words continue to be repeated, while the whole history that gave them meaning has evaporated. Thus the Great Fire offers a reminder of what we do and do not have when we find a rich piece of evidence.
But we can only begin to understand what they might mean by tracing their complicated provenance, and the web of institutions, political struggles, and processes of transmission by which they have survived to us. To begin to understand the history subtending what stands in plain view is challenging, indeed.
I have only begun to sketch out that history here. Furthermore, the shift was never complete in that the two regimes contin- ued to coexist as they still do. The highly partisan, controversial nature of print culture in the seventeenth century insured that most readers could not take words printed on paper or engraved into stone as inevitably true. A work needed other authorizations— such as its own declaration that it was true and Protestant — to compel belief.
Diary of Samuel Pepys - Volume 51: March 1666-67
Yet both the printing of the evi- dence collected by the parliamentary committee and the controversy about the inscription on the monument suggest that the written was beginning to carry more weight than the spoken. Written words had a particular ability not only to command belief but also to shape memory. In taking this approach to the Great Fire, I am not, then, arguing either that nothing really happened, or that it does not matter what did. My own practice in this essay —the use of many different kinds of evidence, the abundant notes, the historical narrative — should all demonstrate that I do not disdain the project of finding out what happened and why.
Relying largely on print evidence, much of it available on microfilm, and on a tow- ering monument, I have not found anything heretofore unknown. Neither of my central pieces of evidence was a smoking gun — definitive, irre- futable. Even a monument cannot stand alone, however much it may look as if it does. I am also grateful to audiences at the University of Chicago and Columbia University for their helpful questions and comments, and to Richard Strier and Jean Howard for inviting me to speak and for responding to this work in especially useful ways.
Ralph Cohen New York: Routledge, , 19 — 43, esp. Jean E.
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Howard and Marion F. See also the recent special issue of Studies in the Literary Imagination Marc Roudebush, Representations 26 : 7 — These tallies seem to have been based on assessments by the city surveyors. Osmund Airy Oxford, , Henry B. Wheatley, 9 vols. London: George Bell and Sons, , — , esp.
Thomas B. Howell, 33 vols. London, — 26 , vol.
John Satterthwayt London, As well as being the subject of hundreds of books both fiction and nonfiction , Nostradamus's life has been depicted in several films and videos, and his life and writings continue to be a subject of media interest. There have also been several well-known Internet hoaxes , where quatrains in the style of Nostradamus have been circulated by e-mail as the real thing.
The best-known examples concern the collapse of the World Trade Center in the 11 September attacks. With the arrival of the year , Nostradamus's prophecies started to be co-opted especially by the History Channel as evidence suggesting that the end of the world was imminent, notwithstanding the fact that his book never mentions the end of the world, let alone the year From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This is the latest accepted revision , reviewed on 27 September For other uses, see Nostradamus disambiguation. Salon-de-Provence , Provence, France.
Main articles. Death and culture Parapsychology Scientific literacy. Nostradamus's supporters have retrospectively claimed that he predicted major world events, including the Great Fire of London , the French Revolution , the rises of Napoleon Bonaparte and Adolf Hitler , the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki , and the September 11 attacks. Main article: Nostradamus in popular culture.
Biography portal. More were later added, amounting to in an omnibus edition published after his death organized into ten "Centuries", each one containing one hundred quatrains, except for Century VII, which, for unknown reasons, only contains forty-two; the other fifty-eight may have been lost due to a problem during publication. Similarly, the expression Pau, Nay, Loron —often interpreted as an anagram of "Napaulon Roy"—refers to three towns in southwestern France near his one-time home, and on Quatrain 57 of Century I, Nostradamus seemingly refers to Trump by calling the person mentioned a "false trumpet.
Nostradamus: The Man Behind the Prophecies. Martin's Press. London: W.
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Chambers Limited. Retrieved 7 January Archived from the original on 28 September Retrieved 17 April Archived from the original on 27 July Retrieved 11 September Internet Sacred Text Archive. Retrieved 20 March The Diary of Samuel Pepys. Nostradamus and Prophecies of the Next Millennium. Nostradamus, Michel:: Orus Apollo , ? Brind'Amour, Pierre Librairie Droz.
Chevignard, Bernard Chomarat, Michel; Laroche, Jean-Paul Gruber, Elmar R. Scherz Verlag GmbH. Lemesurier, Peter 1 April Lemesurier, Peter 1 November John Hunt Publishing.